Babylon was the seat of power for the neo-Babylonian empire that destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple about 2600 years ago, during the days of the prophet Jeremiah.
Babylon was the subject of many prophecies in the Bible, including some by Jeremiah and Isaiah. In Jeremiah 25:11-12, we were told that Babylon would rule over the land of Judah for a period of 70 years. He also said that this subjugation would include an exile that would end at the end of that 70-year period.
The neo-Babylonian empire rose to power in 612 BC with the defeat of the Assyrians at Nineveh. A few years later, in 609 BC, the Babylonians captured and killed the last Assyrian king. Seventy years later, in 539 BC, the neo-Babylonian empire fell to Cyrus and his invading army of Medes and Persians.
Babylon never again rose to power but began a gradual process of decline, during the course of centuries, until the city was abandoned and buried in sand. Babylon began a new life as an archaeological site during the 1800s.
Next Bible place: Beersheba
Go to: List of places in the Bible